No, it's not a known thing and most importantly they should not affect each other. I have built aMule successfully with both debug and boost enabled.
Could you please attach a log of the error?
I should clean and rebuild the source tree, however I remember the error.
It was failing to link a lib because of a missing CLogger:IsEnabled()
In the GIT rev I have used this method was defined in Logger.h returning false in case of #ifndef__DEBUG__.
Otherwise if__DEGUG__ is defined, the definition of such method is in Logger.cpp. I have fixed the issue removing the return false definition from .h and moved it under ifdef-else in the .cpp.
I cannot be more specific about what was the exact component failing to build, but was Boost:Asio specific for sure and with - - disable-debug.
But please consider that it was the same directory where I built the non Asio version, going through a new .configure so maybe it was the problem?